What Are Cannabinoids:
A cannabinoid is one of the broad classes of chemical substances that activate cannabinoid receptors in the cells altering neurotransmitter release in the brain. The substances that trigger these protein receptors are Endocannabinoid, Phytocannabinoid, and synthetic cannabinoids. The most widely known cannabinoid is the Phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); it is one of the psychoactive substances in cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a different known component of the plant. There are at least 101 different cannabinoids derived from cannabis and hemp, each exhibiting different effects when consumed.
What are Cannabinoids used for?
A cannabinoid is sometimes used for medical reasons; they are used in the treatment of nausea arising from chemotherapy, spasticity, and neuropathic pain. The side effects of cannabinoids range from feeling high to feeling sedated and relaxed. Research on cannabinoids has shown some promising effects on anxiety reduction, reduced inflammation, and slowing the growth of tumors. The effect of a Cannabinoid is the result of its interaction with special receptors in the cell surface known as CB1 or CB2 Receptors.
TYPES OF CANNABINOID RECEPTORS:
There are generally two types of receptors present in the body known as CB1 and CB2. You should know that the human brain has more cannabinoid receptors than any G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in the world.
CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 1
CB1 is primarily found in the brain. It is found in the basement ganglia and in the limbic system. This also includes the hippocampus and the striatum. CB1 receptors can also be found in the cerebellum, and the cannabinoid receptors are present in the male and female reproductive system. The medulla oblongata is another area where the receptor is found; this part of the brain is responsible for the respiratory and cardiovascular function of the body. CB1 receptors can also be found in parts of the eye responsible for vision. .
CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 2
CB2 receptors are dominant in the immune system, or the immune-derived cells with a majority found in the spleen. Reports have shown that a small percentage of CB2 is present in the microglia of the human cerebellum. It is responsible for the anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects of cannabis that is seen in animals.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CBC, CBG, CBN, CBD AND THC
The differences between these cannabinoids are clearly discernable when their properties and effects are directly compared to one another. Let take a look at them more explicitly:
This is also known as Cannabidiol; it is one of the chemical substances found in the help plant also known as Hemp. About 80 + chemicals are found in this plant. Cannabidiol makes about 40% of cannabis extracts. Cannabidiol has been said to be a drug because of its medical benefits. This cannabinoid has an antipsychotic effect as it helps break down the chemicals in the brain responsible for pain, mood and mental function.
The benefits of this cannabinoid are outlined below:
- It fights against the symptoms of sclerosis
- It may aid in the treatment of bipolar disorder
- It can be used in epilepsy treatment
- It is effective in Parkinson’s disease
- It is effective against insomnia
- It is effective against Huntington’s disease
- It is used to treat social anxiety disorders.
Also known as tetrahydrocannabinol, this is the chemical responsible for the marijuana effect. It acts like a cannabinoid made by the body naturally. Cannabinoid receptors in the body associated with thinking, memory, pleasure, coordination and time perception are activated easily by this chemical. It is the primary ingredient secreted by the marijuana plant. In our biological system, THC stimulates dopamine, and in the process creates euphoria. It also interferes with information processing in the hippocampus. It also man induce hallucinations, changes one’s thinking while often causing delusion.
The benefits of THC are outlined below:
- It is used in treating nausea and vomiting associated with cancer patients
- It is an appetite stimulant
- It is used to improve memory
- It is used as a painkiller
- It is used to treat glaucoma
- It is used to fight against anxiety
- It is used to treat muscle spasticity
Also known as Cannabibichromere, is a very rare non-psychoactive cannabinoid that was discovered 50 years ago. It is one of the “big boys” in cannabinoid research. Because it is scarce, it does not get that much spotlight or attention, but it has a lot of excellent benefits. CBC comes from the same source as THC and CBD; it is created from Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which is produced by plants. The plant’s enzymes control the breakdown of CBC from Cannabichromene Carboxylic Acid and then to CBC after heat exposure.
The benefits of CBC especially in the medical field are very interesting. The cannabinoid has been used in cancer treatment; this is because of its interaction between Endocannabinoid and anandamide. After a recent study, it was found that CBC is very effective in counteracting inflammation and tumor growth. Research is being done to see if CBC can be a chemo-preventive agent. It is known to be a powerful painkiller. It blocks pain and inflammation arising from osteoarthritis. They act on inflammation without any side effects unlike non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Another benefit of CBC is that it is a potent inhibitor of skin disease and acne. CBC also promotes healthy brain function.
Which stands for Cannabigerol (CBG), is a cannabinoid worth learning about. This cannabinoid is not intoxicating; this means that it does not make people feel “high” like other known cannabinoids. It is present in low amounts in most cannabis strains; it is considered to be a minor cannabinoid. It is the chemical parent of THC and CBD; this is because they are both created from CBG.
The benefits derived from CBG are:
- It helps in treating glaucoma because it can reduce intraocular pressure
- It is also a potent vasodilator; it has protective effects to neural system
- It is used in battling inflammatory bowel disease
- It has also been a promising cancer fighter, but research is still ongoing
- It inhibits tumor and chemically induced colon carcinogenesis
- It is also a very powerful antibacterial agent
- It is also powerful appetite stimulant
- It has been tested to inhibit muscle contraction making it very useful in preventing bladder dysfunction disorders.
This is also known as Cannabidiol, and it is not intoxicating, unlike most cannabinoid. You should know that this cannabinoid strongly resembles CBD. It is also a very sedative cannabinoid. Most flowers contain only a small amount of CBN, unlike other cannabinoids. CBN is the result of THC oxidation; this is why old cannabis has a high amount of CBN.
Some known benefits produced from this cannabinoid are listed below:
- Appetite stimulant
- Increases bone cell growth